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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark one)

 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission file number 001-38373

Graphic

TRANSOCEAN LTD.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Switzerland

98-0599916

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

Turmstrasse 30

Steinhausen, Switzerland

6312

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +41 (41) 749-0500

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Shares, CHF 0.10 per share

RIG

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer  Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company  Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes    No  

As of June 30, 2019, 611,741,184 shares were outstanding and the aggregate market value of shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $3.9 billion (based on the reported closing market price of the shares of Transocean Ltd. on June 30, 2019 of $6.41 and assuming that all directors and executive officers of the Company are “affiliates,” although the Company does not acknowledge that any such person is actually an “affiliate” within the meaning of the federal securities laws).  As of February 12, 2020, 612,573,158 shares were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of December 31, 2019, for its 2020 annual general meeting of shareholders, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

TRANSOCEAN LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES

INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019

Item

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

2

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

8

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

21

Item 2.

Properties

21

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

21

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

21

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

23

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

25

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

26

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

40

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

41

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

80

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

80

Item 9B.

Other Information

80

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

81

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

81

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters

81

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

81

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

81

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

82

Forward-Looking Information

The statements included in this annual report regarding future financial performance and results of operations and other statements that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the United States (“U.S.”) Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  Forward-looking statements in this annual report include, but are not limited to, statements about the following subjects:

our results of operations, our revenue efficiency and other performance indicators and our cash flow from operations;
the offshore drilling market, including the effects of declines in commodity prices, supply and demand, utilization rates, dayrates, customer drilling programs, stacking and reactivation of rigs, effects of new rigs on the market, the impact of changes to regulations in jurisdictions in which we operate and changes in the global economy or market outlook for the various geographies in which we operate or our classes of rigs;
customer drilling contracts, including contract backlog, force majeure provisions, contract awards, commencements, extensions, terminations, renegotiations, contract option exercises, contract revenues, early termination payments, indemnity provisions and rig mobilizations;
liquidity, including availability under our bank credit agreement, and adequacy of cash flows for our obligations;
debt levels, including impacts of a financial and economic downturn, and interest rates;
newbuild, upgrade, shipyard and other capital projects, including completion, relinquishment or abandonment, delivery and commencement of operation dates, expected downtime and lost revenue, the level of expected capital expenditures and the timing and cost of completion of capital projects;
the cost and timing of acquisitions and the proceeds and timing of dispositions;
the optimization of rig-based spending;
tax matters, including our effective tax rate, changes in tax laws, treaties and regulations, tax assessments and liabilities for tax issues, including those associated with our activities in Brazil, Norway, the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) and the U.S.;
legal and regulatory matters, including results and effects of current or potential legal proceedings and governmental audits and assessments, outcomes and effects of internal and governmental investigations, customs and environmental matters;
insurance matters, including adequacy of insurance, renewal of insurance, insurance proceeds and cash investments of our wholly owned captive insurance company;
effects of accounting changes and adoption of accounting policies; and
investment in recruitment, retention and personnel development initiatives, defined benefit pension plan contributions, the timing of severance payments and benefit payments.

Forward-looking statements in this annual report are identifiable by use of the following words and other similar expressions:

anticipates

budgets

estimates

forecasts

may

plans

projects

should

believes

could

expects

intends

might

predicts

scheduled

Such statements are subject to numerous risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including, but not limited to:

those described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this annual report on Form 10-K;
the adequacy of and access to our sources of liquidity;
our inability to obtain drilling contracts for our rigs that do not have contracts;
our inability to renew drilling contracts at comparable dayrates;
operational performance;
the cancellation of drilling contracts currently included in our reported contract backlog;
losses on impairment of long-lived assets;
shipyard, construction and other delays;
the results of meetings of our shareholders;
changes in political, social and economic conditions;
the effect and results of litigation, regulatory matters, settlements, audits, assessments and contingencies; and
other factors discussed in this annual report and in our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which are available free of charge on the SEC website at www.sec.gov.

The foregoing risks and uncertainties are beyond our ability to control, and in many cases, we cannot predict the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements.  Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those indicated.  All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or to persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by reference to these risks and uncertainties.  You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of the particular statement.  We expressly disclaim any obligations or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement to reflect any change in our expectations or beliefs with regard to the statement or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any forward-looking statement is based, except as required by law.

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1.Business

Overview

Transocean Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries and predecessors, unless the context requires otherwise, “Transocean,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading international provider of offshore contract drilling services for oil and gas wells.  As of February 12, 2020, we owned or had partial ownership interests in and operated a fleet of 45 mobile offshore drilling units, consisting of 28 ultra-deepwater floaters, 14 harsh environment floaters and three midwater floaters.  As of February 12, 2020, we were constructing two ultra-deepwater drillships.

Our primary business is to contract our drilling rigs, related equipment and work crews predominantly on a dayrate basis to drill oil and gas wells.  We specialize in technically demanding regions of the global offshore drilling business with a particular focus on ultra-deepwater and harsh environment drilling services.  Our mobile offshore drilling fleet is one of the most versatile fleets in the world, consisting of drillship and semisubmersible floaters used in support of offshore drilling activities and offshore support services on a worldwide basis.

Transocean Ltd. is a Swiss corporation with its registered office in Steinhausen, Canton of Zug and with principal executive offices located at Turmstrasse 30, 6312 Zug, Switzerland.  Our telephone number at that address is +41 41 749-0500.  Our shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “RIG.”  For information about the revenues, operating income, assets and other information related to our business, our segments and the geographic areas in which we operate, see “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 22—Operating Segments, Geographic Analysis and Major Customers.”

Drilling Fleet

Overview—Our drilling fleet of floaters consists of drillships and semisubmersibles, which are mobile and can be moved to new locations in response to customer demand.  Our drilling equipment is suitable for both exploration and development, and we engage in both types of drilling activity.  Our mobile offshore drilling units are designed to operate in locations away from port for extended periods of time and have living quarters for the crews, a helicopter landing deck and storage space for drill pipe, riser and drilling supplies.

Drillships are generally self-propelled vessels, shaped like conventional ships, and are the most mobile of the major rig types.  Our high-specification drillships are equipped with dynamic positioning thruster systems, which allows them to maintain position without anchors through the use of onboard propulsion and station-keeping systems.  Ultra-deepwater drillships typically have greater deck load and storage capacity than early generation semisubmersible rigs, which provides logistical and resupply efficiency benefits for customers.  Drillships are generally better suited to operations in calmer sea conditions and typically do not operate in areas considered to be harsh environments.  We have 22 ultra-deepwater drillships that are, and two ultra-deepwater drillships under construction that will be, equipped with our patented dual-activity technology.  Dual-activity technology employs structures, equipment and techniques using two drilling stations within a dual derrick to allow these drillships to perform simultaneous drilling tasks in a parallel, rather than a sequential manner, which reduces critical path activity and improves efficiency in both exploration and development drilling.  In addition to dynamic positioning thruster systems, dual-activity technology and industry-leading hoisting capacity, our contracted newbuild drillship under construction will be equipped with and our uncontracted newbuild drillship will be equipped to accommodate two 20,000 pounds per square inch (“psi”) blowout preventers.

Semisubmersibles are floating vessels that can be partially submerged by means of a water ballast system such that the lower column sections and pontoons are below the water surface during drilling operations.  Semisubmersibles are known for stability, making them well suited for operating in rough sea conditions.  Semisubmersible floaters are capable of maintaining their position over a well either through dynamic positioning or the use of mooring systems.  Although most semisubmersible rigs are relocated with the assistance of tugs, some units are self-propelled and move between locations under their own power when afloat on pontoons.  Five of our 21 semisubmersibles are equipped with dual-activity technology and also have mooring capability.  Two of these five dual-activity units are custom-designed, high capacity semisubmersible drilling rigs, equipped for year-round operations in harsh environments, including those of the Norwegian continental shelf and sub-Arctic waters.

Fleet categories—We further categorize the drilling units of our fleet as follows: (1) “ultra-deepwater floaters,” (2) “harsh environment floaters” and (3) “midwater floaters”.  Ultra-deepwater floaters are equipped with high-pressure mud pumps and are capable of drilling in water depths of 4,500 feet or greater.  Harsh environment floaters are capable of drilling in harsh environments in water depths between 1,500 and 10,000 feet and have greater displacement, which offers larger variable load capacity, more useable deck space and better motion characteristics.  Midwater floaters are generally comprised of those non-high-specification semisubmersibles that have a water depth capacity of less than 4,500 feet.

Fleet status—Depending on market conditions, we may idle or stack non-contracted rigs.  An idle rig is between drilling contracts, readily available for operations, and operating costs are typically at or near normal operating levels.  A stacked rig typically has reduced operating costs, is staffed by a reduced crew or has no crew and is (a) preparing for an extended period of inactivity, (b) expected to continue to be inactive for an extended period, or (c) completing a period of extended inactivity.  Stacked rigs will continue to incur operating costs at

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or above normal operating levels for approximately 30 days following initiation of stacking.  Some idle rigs and all stacked rigs require additional costs to return to service.  The actual cost to return to service, which in many instances could be significant and could fluctuate over time, depends upon various factors, including the availability and cost of shipyard facilities, the cost of equipment and materials and the extent of repairs and maintenance that may ultimately be required.  We consider these factors, together with market conditions, length of contract, dayrate and other contract terms, when deciding whether to return a stacked rig to service.  We may not return some stacked rigs to work for drilling services.

Drilling units—The following tables, presented as of February 14, 2020, provide certain specifications for our rigs.  Unless otherwise noted, the stated location of each rig indicates either the current drilling location, if the rig is operating, or the next operating location, if the rig is in shipyard with a follow-on contract.  The dates provided represent the expected time of completion, the year placed into service, and, if applicable, the year of the most recent upgrade.  As of February 14, 2020, we owned all of the drilling rigs in our fleet noted in the tables below, except for the following: (1) the harsh environment floater Transocean Norge, which is owned through our 33.0 percent ownership interest in Orion Holdings (Cayman) Limited (together with its subsidiary, “Orion”), , and (2) the ultra-deepwater floater Petrobras 10000, which is subject to a finance lease through August 2029.

Water

Drilling

Contracted

depth

depth

location or

Expected

capacity

capacity

contracted

Rig category and name

    

Specifications

    

Type

    

completion

    

(in feet)

    

(in feet)

    

status

 

Rigs under construction (2)

Ultra-deepwater floaters

Deepwater Atlas

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Drillship

12,000

40,000

Uncontracted

Deepwater Titan

(a) (b) (c) (e)

Drillship

4Q 2021

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

(a)

To be dynamically positioned.

(b)

To be equipped with our patented dual activity.

(c)

To be equipped with two blowout preventers.

(d)

Designed to accommodate a future upgrade to 20,000 pounds psi blowout preventers.

(e)

To be equipped with two 20,000 pounds psi blowout preventers.

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Water

Drilling

Contracted

Year

depth

depth

location or

entered

capacity

capacity

standby

Rig category and name

    

Specifications

    

Type

    

service

    

(in feet)

    

(in feet)

    

status

 

Ultra-deepwater floaters (28)

Deepwater Poseidon

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Drillship

2018

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Pontus

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Drillship

2017

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Conqueror

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Drillship

2016

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Proteus

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Drillship

2016

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Thalassa

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Drillship

2016

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Ocean Rig Apollo

(a) (b)

Drillship

2015

12,000

40,000

Stacked

Deepwater Athena

(a) (b)

Drillship

2014

12,000

40,000

Stacked

Deepwater Asgard

(a) (b) (c)

Drillship

2014

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Invictus

(a) (b) (c)

Drillship

2014

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Skyros

(a) (b)

Drillship

2013

12,000

40,000

Angola

Deepwater Mylos

(a) (b)

Drillship

2013

12,000

40,000

Stacked

Deepwater Champion

(a) (b)

Drillship

2011

12,000

40,000

Stacked

Deepwater Corcovado

(a) (b)

Drillship

2011

10,000

35,000

Brazil

Deepwater Mykonos

(a) (b)

Drillship

2011

10,000

35,000

Brazil

Deepwater Orion

(a) (b)

Drillship

2011

10,000

35,000

Idle

Deepwater Olympia

(a) (b)

Drillship

2011

10,000

35,000

Stacked

Discoverer India

(a) (b) (e)

Drillship

2010

12,000

40,000

Egypt

Discoverer Luanda

(a) (b) (e)

Drillship

2010

7,500

40,000

Stacked

Dhirubhai Deepwater KG2

(a)

Drillship

2010

12,000

35,000

Australia

Discoverer Inspiration

(a) (b) (c) (e)

Drillship

2010

12,000

40,000

U.S. Gulf

Discoverer Americas

(a) (b) (e)

Drillship

2009

12,000

40,000

Stacked

Development Driller III

(a) (b) (f)

Semisubmersible

2009

7,500

37,500

Equatorial Guinea

Petrobras 10000

(a) (b)

Drillship

2009

12,000

37,500

Brazil

Discoverer Clear Leader

(a) (b) (c) (e)

Drillship

2009

12,000

40,000

Stacked

Dhirubhai Deepwater KG1

(a)

Drillship

2009

12,000

35,000

India

GSF Development Driller II

(a) (b) (f)

Semisubmersible

2005

7,500

37,500

Stacked

GSF Development Driller I

(a) (b) (f)

Semisubmersible

2005

7,500

37,500

Australia

Deepwater Nautilus

(f)

Semisubmersible

2000

8,000

30,000

Brunei

Harsh environment floaters (14)

Transocean Norge

(a) (f)

Semisubmersible

2019

10,000

40,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Enabler

(a) (f)

Semisubmersible

2016

1,640

28,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Encourage

(a) (f)

Semisubmersible

2016

1,640

28,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Endurance

(a) (f)

Semisubmersible

2015

1,640

28,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Equinox

(a) (f)

Semisubmersible

2015

1,640

28,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Polar Pioneer

(f)

Semisubmersible

1985/2014

1,500

25,000

Stacked

Songa Dee

(f)

Semisubmersible

1984/2014

1,500

30,000

Stacked

Transocean Spitsbergen

(a) (f) (g)

Semisubmersible

2010

10,000

30,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Barents

(a) (f) (g)

Semisubmersible

2009

10,000

30,000

Canada

Henry Goodrich

(f)

Semisubmersible

1985/2007

5,000

30,000

Idle

Leiv Eiriksson

(a) (f)

Semisubmersible

2001

7,500

25,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Leader

(f)

Semisubmersible

1987/1997

4,500

25,000

U.K. N. Sea

Paul B. Loyd, Jr.

(f)

Semisubmersible

1990

2,000

25,000

U.K. N. Sea

Transocean Arctic

(f)

Semisubmersible

1986

1,650

25,000

Norwegian N. Sea

Midwater floaters (3)

Sedco 714

(f)

Semisubmersible

1983/1997

1,600

25,000

Stacked

Transocean 712

(f)

Semisubmersible

1983

1,600

25,000

U.K. N. Sea

Sedco 711

(f)

Semisubmersible

1982

1,800

25,000

Stacked

(a)Dynamically positioned.
(b)Patented dual activity.
(c)Two blowout preventers.
(d)Designed to accommodate a future upgrade to 20,000 pounds psi blowout preventers.
(e)Enhanced Enterprise-class rig.
(f)Moored.
(g)Dual activity.

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Markets

Our operations are geographically dispersed in oil and gas exploration and development areas throughout the world.  We operate in a single, global offshore drilling market, as our drilling rigs are mobile assets and can be moved according to prevailing market conditions.  We may mobilize our drilling rigs between regions for a variety of reasons, including to respond to customer contracting requirements or to capture observed market demand.  Consequently, we cannot predict the future percentage of our revenues that will be derived from particular geographic areas.  As of February 14, 2020, our drilling fleet, including stacked and idle rigs, but excluding rigs under construction, was located in the Norwegian North Sea (ten units), the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (eight units), Greece (seven units), the U.K. North Sea (five units), Brazil (three units), Canada (two units), Australia (two units), Malaysia (one unit), Angola (one unit), India (one unit), Egypt (one unit), Brunei (one unit), Equatorial Guinea (one unit), Namibia (one unit), and Romania (one unit).

We categorize the market sectors in which we operate as follows: (1) ultra-deepwater and deepwater, (2) harsh environment and (3) midwater.  These market sectors, collectively known as the floater market, are serviced by our drillships and semisubmersibles, 14 of which are suited to work in harsh environments.  We generally view the ultra-deepwater and deepwater market sector as water depths beginning at 4,500 feet and extending to the maximum water depths in which rigs are capable of drilling, which is currently up to 12,000 feet.  The midwater market sector services water depths from approximately 300 feet to approximately 4,500 feet.  The harsh environment market sector services regions that are more challenged by lower temperatures, harsher weather conditions and water currents.

The market for offshore drilling rigs and related services reflects oil companies’ demand for equipment for drilling exploration, appraisal and development wells and for performing maintenance on existing production wells.  Activity levels of energy companies, including integrated oil companies, independent oil companies and, to a lesser extent, national oil companies are largely driven by the worldwide demand for energy, including crude oil and natural gas.  Worldwide energy supply and demand drives oil and natural gas prices, which, in turn, impact energy companies’ ability to fund investments in exploration, development and production activities.

Since 2014, the industry has experienced a severe, prolonged cyclical downturn.  Multiple years of volatile and generally weak commodity prices have resulted in our customers delaying offshore investment decisions and postponing exploration and development programs.  Structural efficiency gains achieved by industry participants in reaction to the downturn have provided customers more incentive to progress exploration and development plans in a lower commodity pricing environment, which resulted in increased customer project sanctioning in 2019.  We anticipate this trend of increased project sanctioning to continue in 2020 as our customers continue to realize favorable offshore economics, reducing their sensitivity to market volatility, and increasing their focus on exploration and reserve replacement.  Ultimately, as the hydrocarbon supply-demand balance improves, we expect a longer term sustained improvement of oil prices, that is expected to translate into greater demand for our fleet, resulting in further improvement of dayrates.

In markets requiring harsh environment floating drilling rigs, the limited supply of these specialized, high-specification rigs has continued to result in strong utilization and dayrate.  In the ultra-deepwater markets, persistently improving supply-demand dynamics is now positively impacting both utilization and dayrates.  With an increasing number of projects coming from deepwater and ultra-deepwater basins worldwide, we expect this trend to continue.

We have made concerted efforts since the beginning of the downturn to high-grade our fleet profile by acquiring additional high-specification assets and disposing of lower-specification assets.  In the year ended December 31, 2018, we significantly enhanced our high-specification asset portfolio with our acquisitions of Songa Offshore SE(“Songa”), a European public company limited by shares, or societas Europaea, existing under the laws of Cyprus, and Ocean Rig UDW Inc. (“Ocean Rig”), a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability, and our investment in a partial ownership interest in an unconsolidated affiliate that owns the harsh environment floater Transocean Norge.  During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, we sold for scrap value eleven, eight and three lower-specification drilling units, respectively.

Our outlook for the offshore drilling sector remains positive, particularly for high-specification assets.  Brazil, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa remain key ultra-deepwater market sectors, while Norway represents the largest harsh environment market.  Licensing activity demonstrated an increased interest in these areas as energy companies looked to explore and develop new prospects.  We expect deepwater oil and gas production will continue to be the primary part of the long-term strategy for energy companies as they strive to replace reserves to meet global demand for energy sources and hydrocarbons.  As our customers continue to achieve structural efficiency gains, we anticipate additional offshore projects will be sanctioned.  Often, these projects are technically demanding due to factors such as water depth, complex well designs, deeper drilling depth, high pressure and temperature, sub-salt, harsh environments, and heightened regulatory standards; therefore, they require high-specification drilling units.  Generally, high-specification rigs are the most modern, technologically advanced class of the offshore fleet and have capabilities that are attractive to energy companies operating in deeper water depths, other challenging environments or with complex well designs.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business.”

Contract Drilling Services

Our contracts to provide offshore drilling services are individually negotiated and vary in their terms and conditions.  We obtain most of our drilling contracts through competitive bidding against other contractors and direct negotiations with operators.  Drilling contracts generally provide for payment on a dayrate basis, with higher rates for periods while the drilling unit is operating and lower rates or zero rate for periods of mobilization or when drilling operations are interrupted or restricted by equipment breakdowns, adverse environmental

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conditions or other conditions beyond our control.  A dayrate drilling contract generally extends over a period of time covering either the drilling of a single well or group of wells or covering a stated term.  At December 31, 2019, our contract backlog was approximately $10.4 billion, representing a decrease of 17 percent and an increase of 9 percent, respectively, compared to the contract backlog at December 31, 2018 and 2017, which was $12.5 billion and $9.5 billion, respectively.  See “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Performance and Other Key Indicators.”

Certain of our drilling contracts may be cancelable for the convenience of the customer upon payment of an early termination payment.  Such payments, however, may not fully compensate us for the loss of the contract.  Contracts also customarily provide for either automatic termination or termination at the option of the customer, typically without the payment of any termination fee, under various circumstances such as non-performance, in the event of extended downtime or impaired performance caused by equipment or operational issues, or periods of extended downtime due to force majeure events.  Many of these events are beyond our control.  The contract term in some instances may be extended by the customer exercising options for the drilling of additional wells or for an additional term.  Our contracts also typically include a provision that allows the customer to extend the contract to finish drilling a well-in-progress.  During periods of depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to renegotiate firm drilling contracts to reduce the term of their obligations or the average dayrate through term extensions, or may seek to repudiate their contracts.  Suspension of drilling contracts will result in the reduction in or loss of dayrate for the period of the suspension.  If our customers cancel some of our contracts and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, if contracts are suspended for an extended period of time or if a number of our contracts are renegotiated, it could adversely affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—Our drilling contracts may be terminated due to a number of events, and, during depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to repudiate or renegotiate their contracts.”

Under dayrate drilling contracts, consistent with standard industry practice, our customers, as the operators, generally assume, and grant indemnity for, subsurface and well control risks, and their consequential damages.  Under all of our current drilling contracts, our customers, indemnify us for pollution damages in connection with reservoir fluids stemming from operations under the contract, and we indemnify our customers for pollution that originates above the surface of the water from the rig from substances in our control, such as diesel used onboard the rig or other fluids stored onboard the rig.  Also, our customers indemnify us for consequential damages they incur, damage to the well or reservoir, loss of subsurface oil and gas and the cost of bringing the well under control.  However, our drilling contracts are individually negotiated, and the degree of indemnification we receive from our customers for the risks discussed above may vary from contract to contract, based on market conditions and customer requirements existing when the contract was negotiated.  In some instances, we have contractually agreed upon certain limits to our indemnification rights and can be responsible for damages up to a specified maximum dollar amount.  The nature of our liability and the prevailing market conditions, among other factors, can influence such contractual terms.  In most instances in which we are indemnified for damages to the well, we have the responsibility to redrill the well at a reduced dayrate.  Notwithstanding a contractual indemnity from a customer, there can be no assurance that our customers will be financially able to indemnify us or will otherwise honor their contractual indemnity obligations.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—Our business involves numerous operating hazards, and our insurance and indemnities from our customers may not be adequate to cover potential losses from our operations.”

The interpretation and enforceability of a contractual indemnity depends upon the specific facts and circumstances involved, as governed by applicable laws, and may ultimately need to be decided by a court or other proceeding, which will need to consider the specific contract language, the facts and applicable laws.  The law generally considers contractual indemnity for criminal fines and penalties to be against public policy.  Courts also restrict indemnification for criminal fines and penalties.  The inability or other failure of our customers to fulfill their indemnification obligations, or unenforceability of our contractual protections could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Significant Customers

We engage in offshore drilling services for most of the leading integrated oil companies or their affiliates, as well as for many government-owned or government-controlled oil companies and other independent oil companies.  For the year ended December 31, 2019, our most significant customers were Royal Dutch Shell plc (together with its affiliates, “Shell”), Equinor ASA (together with its affiliates, “Equinor”) and Chevron Corporation (together with its affiliates, “Chevron”), representing approximately 26 percent, 21 percent and 17 percent, respectively, of our consolidated operating revenues.  No other customers accounted for 10 percent or more of our consolidated operating revenues in the year ended December 31, 2019.  Additionally, as of February 14, 2020, the customers with the most significant aggregate amount of contract backlog associated with our drilling contracts were Shell, Equinor and Chevron, representing approximately 49 percent, 26 percent and 13 percent, respectively, of our total contract backlog.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—We rely heavily on a relatively small number of customers and the loss of a significant customer or a dispute that leads to the loss of a customer could have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.”

Employees

We require highly skilled personnel to operate our drilling units.  Consequently, we conduct extensive personnel recruiting, training and safety programs.  At December 31, 2019, we had approximately 6,600 employees, including approximately 700 persons engaged through contract labor providers.  Approximately 47 percent of our total workforce, working primarily in Norway, Brazil, the U.K., Angola and

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Australia are represented by, and some of our contracted labor work is subject to, collective bargaining agreements, substantially all of which are subject to annual salary negotiation.  These negotiations sometimes result in strikes and could result in higher personnel expenses, other increased costs or increased operational restrictions as the outcome of such negotiations affect the market for all offshore employees, not just the union members.  Additionally, failure to reach agreement on certain key issues may result in strikes, lockouts or other work stoppages that may materially impact our operations.

Joint Venture, Agency and Sponsorship Relationships and Other Investments

In some areas of the world, local customs and practice or governmental requirements necessitate the formation of joint ventures with local participation since local laws or customs in those areas effectively mandate the establishment of a relationship with a local agent or sponsor.  When appropriate in these areas, we enter into agency or sponsorship agreements.  We may also enter into joint ventures for operational or investment purposes.  We may or may not control these joint ventures.  At December 31, 2019, we held interests in certain joint venture companies in the Cayman Islands, Nigeria, Angola, Indonesia and other countries, the most significant of which was our 33.0 percent ownership interest in Orion, an unconsolidated Cayman Islands exempted company formed to construct and own the harsh environment semisubmersible Transocean Norge.  Certain affiliates of Hayfin Capital Management LLP, own the remaining 67.0 percent ownership interest in Orion not owned by us.

Technological Innovation

We have a long history of technological innovation, including the first dynamically positioned drillship, the first rig to drill year-round in the North Sea, the first semisubmersible rig for year-round sub-Arctic operations, the first 10,000-ft. water depth rated ultra-deepwater drillship and numerous water depth world records over the past several decades.  Twenty-two drillships and three semisubmersibles in our existing fleet are, and our two drillships that are under construction will be, equipped with our patented dual-activity technology, which allows our rigs to perform simultaneous drilling tasks in a parallel rather than sequential manner, reducing well construction critical path activities and, thereby, improving efficiency in both exploration and development drilling.

We continue to develop and deploy industry-leading technology in the pursuit of delivering safer, more efficient and environmentally responsible drilling services.  In addition to our patented dual-activity drilling technology, two of our drillships under construction will include industry-leading 3 million-pound hook load capability, hybrid power systems for enhanced drill floor equipment reliability, fuel and emissions savings as well as advanced generator protection for power plant reliability.  Nine drillships in our existing fleet are, and our two drillships that are under construction will be, outfitted with dual blowout preventers and triple liquid mud systems.  In late 2018, we contracted and are outfitting one drillship that is under construction with a dual 20,000 psi blowout preventer and related equipment.  Five drillships in our existing fleet are, and our uncontracted drillship that is under construction will be, designed to accept 20,000 psi blowout preventers in the future.

Seven of our harsh environment semisubmersibles are designed and constructed specifically to provide highly efficient performance in the Norwegian North Sea and in the Barents Sea.  In 2019, we deployed the world’s first hybrid energy storage system aboard a floating drilling unit, the harsh environment floater Transocean Spitsbergen, which is the first solution to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while providing enhanced power management reliability.  We also continue to develop and invest in technologies designed to optimize our performance and deliver ever better operational integrity through innovations, such as our proprietary fault-resistant and fault-tolerant blowout preventer control system.  We have installed automated drilling control systems on one harsh environment floater and are proceeding with five additional harsh environment floaters, which materially improve our ability to safely and efficiently deliver wells to our customers.

We have also deployed our smart equipment analytics tool, which delivers real-time data feeds from equipment and is used to monitor equipment health and inferred emissions and energy consumption.  This technology can also identify trends in performance that allow us to systematically optimize equipment maintenance and achieve higher levels of reliability, operational efficiency and sustainability.  This data-driven approach, augmented by the size of our fleet, is helping us build a knowledge framework for sustainable process optimization.  Additionally, our continued, acute focus on personnel safety has driven development of our HaloGuard system, which will alarm, notify and, if required, halt equipment to avoid injury to personnel who move into danger zones.

We believe our efforts to continuously improve, and effectively use, innovative technologies to meet or exceed our customers’ requirements is critical to maintaining our competitive position within the contract drilling services industry by drilling more efficient wells, building greater resilience into our critical operating systems, ensuring the safety of our crews, and reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

Environmental Responsibility

We constantly look for new ways to advance our commitment to safely performing our operations while simultaneously safeguarding the environment in which we operate.  We assess the environmental impacts of our operations, focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, operational discharges and water use, through increasing energy efficiency and waste minimization.  Our actions are designed to reduce risk in our current and future operations, to promote sound environmental management practices and to continue to be proactive in managing and reducing our environmental footprint.  Our investments and deployment of capital and technology reflect our commitment to improve the energy and emission efficiency of our operations.

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When we have decommissioned older and less capable assets, we have demonstrated our commitment to recycle them according to established environmental regulations and guidelines.  All the rigs that we have sold for scrap value have been safely and responsibly recycled following protocols established under the Basel Convention and by the International Maritime Organization at the Hong Kong International Convention.  Although this greater degree of scrutiny requires more of our resources, we are committed to identifying and deploying sustainable solutions throughout the life cycle of our assets.

Our operations are subject to a variety of international, regional, national, state and local environmental regulations.  We monitor our compliance with environmental regulation in each country of operation and, while we see an increase in general environmental regulation, we have made and will continue to make the required expenditures to comply with current and future environmental requirements.  To date, we have not incurred material costs in order to comply with recent environmental regulation, and we do not believe that our compliance with such requirements will have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, consolidated results of operations or cash flows.  For a discussion of the effects of environmental regulation, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—Impact of our compliance with or breach of environmental laws can be costly, expose us to liability and could limit our operations.”

Available Information

Our website address is www.deepwater.com.  Information contained on or accessible from our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K and should not be considered a part of this report or any other filing that we make with the SEC.  We make available on this website free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file those materials with, or furnish those materials to, the SEC.  You may also find on our website information related to our corporate governance, board committees and company code of business conduct and ethics.  The SEC also maintains a website, www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC registrants, including us.  We intend to satisfy the requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K to disclose any amendments to our Code of Integrity and any waiver from any provision of our Code of Integrity by posting such information in the Governance page on our website at www.deepwater.com.

Item 1A.Risk Factors

Risks related to our business

Our business depends on the level of activity in the offshore oil and gas industry, which is significantly affected by volatile oil and gas prices and other factors.

Our business depends on the level of activity in oil and gas exploration, development and production in offshore areas worldwide.  Demand for our services depends on oil and natural gas industry activity and expenditure levels that are directly affected by trends in oil and, to a lesser extent, natural gas prices.  Oil and gas prices are extremely volatile and are affected by numerous factors, including the following:

worldwide demand for oil and gas, including economic activity in the U.S. and other large energy-consuming markets;
the ability of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) to set and maintain production levels, productive spare capacity and pricing;
the level of production in non-OPEC countries;
the policies of various governments regarding exploration and development of their oil and gas reserves;
international sanctions on oil-producing countries, or the lifting of such sanctions;
advances in exploration, development and production technology;
the further development of shale technology to exploit oil and gas reserves;
the discovery rate of new oil and gas reserves;
the rate of decline of existing oil and gas reserves;
laws and regulations related to environmental matters, including those addressing alternative energy sources and the risks of global climate change;
the development and exploitation of alternative energy sources;
accidents, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and other similar incidents relating to the oil and gas industry; and
the worldwide security and political environment, including uncertainty or instability resulting from an escalation or outbreak of armed hostilities, civil unrest, acts of terrorism, public health threats or other crises.

Demand for our services is particularly sensitive to the level of exploration, development and production activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, oil and natural gas companies, including national oil companies.  Prolonged reductions in oil and natural gas prices could depress the immediate levels of exploration, development and production activity.  Perceptions of longer-term lower oil and natural gas prices by oil and gas companies could similarly reduce or defer major expenditures given the long-term nature of many large-scale development projects.  Lower levels of activity result in a corresponding decline in the demand for our services, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.  Oil and gas prices and market expectations of potential changes in these prices significantly affect this level of activity.  However, increases in near-term commodity prices do not necessarily translate into increased offshore drilling activity since customers’ expectations of longer-term future commodity prices typically have a greater impact on demand for our rigs.  Consistent with this dynamic, customers may delay or cancel many exploration and development programs, resulting in reduced demand for our services.  Also, increased competition for customers’ drilling budgets could come from, among other areas, land-based energy markets

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worldwide.  The availability of quality drilling prospects, exploration success, relative production costs, the stage of reservoir development and political and regulatory environments also affect customers’ drilling campaigns.  Worldwide military, political and economic events have often contributed to oil and gas price volatility and are likely to do so in the future.

The offshore drilling industry is highly competitive and cyclical, with intense price competition.

The offshore contract drilling industry is highly competitive with numerous industry participants, none of which has a dominant market share.  Drilling contracts are traditionally awarded on a competitive bid basis.  Although rig availability, service quality and technical capability are drivers of customer contract awards, bid pricing and intense price competition are often key determinants for which a qualified contractor is awarded a job.

The offshore drilling industry is highly cyclical and is impacted by oil and natural gas price levels and volatility.  Periods of high customer demand, limited rig supply and high dayrates have been followed by periods of low customer demand, excess rig supply and low dayrates.  Changes in commodity prices can have a dramatic effect on rig demand, and periods of excess rig supply may intensify competition in the industry and result in the idling of older and less technologically advanced equipment.  We have idled and stacked rigs, and may in the future idle or stack additional rigs or enter into lower dayrate drilling contracts in response to market conditions.  Idled or stacked rigs may remain out of service for extended periods of time.  During prior periods of high dayrates and rig utilization rates, we and other industry participants have responded to increased customer demand by increasing the supply of rigs through ordering the construction of new units.  The number of new units expected to be delivered without contracts, combined with the expected increase in the number of rigs in the global market completing contracts and becoming idle, has increased and may further intensify price competition.  In periods of low oil and natural gas price levels, new construction has historically resulted in an oversupply of rigs and has caused a subsequent decline in dayrates and rig utilization rates, sometimes for extended periods of time.  Any further near-term increase in the construction of new units would likely exacerbate the negative impact of increased supply on dayrates and rig utilization rates.  Additional rigs that remain under construction, and the entry into service of these new units will increase overall supply.  In an oversupplied market, we may have limited bargaining power to negotiate on more favorable terms.  Additionally, lower market dayrates and intense price competition may drive customers to seek to renegotiate existing contracts to lower dayrates in exchange for longer contract terms.  Lower dayrates and rig utilization rates could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

As of February 14, 2020, we have 15 uncontracted rigs, and these rigs may remain out of service for extended periods of time.  We also have one rig under construction that has not been contracted for work.  If we are unable to obtain drilling contracts for our uncontracted rigs, whether due to a prolonged offshore drilling market recovery or otherwise, it may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.

Our current backlog of contract drilling revenue may not be fully realized.

At February 14, 2020, our contract backlog was approximately $10.2 billion.  This amount represents the number of days remaining in the firm term of the drilling contract multiplied by the maximum contractual operating dayrate, excluding revenues for mobilization, demobilization, contract preparation, other incentive provisions or reimbursement revenues, which are generally insignificant to our contract drilling revenues.  Our contract backlog includes amounts associated with our contracted newbuild unit that is currently under construction.  The contractual operating dayrate may be higher than the actual dayrate we ultimately receive or an alternative contractual dayrate, such as waiting on weather rate, repair rate, standby rate or force majeure rate, may apply under certain circumstances.  The contractual operating dayrate may also be higher than the actual dayrate we ultimately receive due to a number of factors, including rig downtime or suspension of operations.  Several factors could cause rig downtime or a suspension of operations, including: equipment breakdowns and other unforeseen engineering problems, labor strikes and other work stoppages, shortages of material and skilled labor, surveys by government and maritime authorities, periodic classification surveys, severe weather or harsh operating conditions, and force majeure events.

In certain drilling contracts, the dayrate may be reduced to zero if, for example, repairs extend beyond a stated period of time.  Our contract backlog includes only firm commitments, which are represented by signed drilling contracts or, in some cases, other definitive agreements awaiting contract execution.  We may not be able to realize the full amount of our contract backlog due to events beyond our control.  In addition, some of our customers have experienced liquidity issues in the past and these liquidity issues could be experienced again if commodity prices decline for an extended period of time.  Liquidity issues and other market pressures could lead our customers to seek bankruptcy protection or to seek to repudiate, cancel or renegotiate these agreements for various reasons (see “—Our drilling contracts may be terminated due to a number of events, and, during depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to repudiate or renegotiate their contracts”).  Our inability to realize the full amount of our contract backlog may have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

We may not be able to renew or obtain new drilling contracts for rigs whose contracts are expiring or obtain drilling contracts for our stacked and idle rigs or our uncontracted newbuild UNIT.

The offshore drilling markets in which we compete experience fluctuations in the demand for drilling services.  Our ability to renew expiring drilling contracts or obtain new drilling contracts depends on the prevailing or expected market conditions at the time of expiration.  As of February 14, 2020, we have 15 stacked or idle rigs and one rig under construction that does not have a customer drilling contract.  We also have 11 existing drilling contracts for our rigs that are currently operating, which are scheduled to expire before December 31, 2020.  We may be unable to obtain drilling contracts for our rigs that are currently operating upon the expiration or termination of such contracts or

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obtain a drilling contract for our uncontracted newbuild unit, and there may be a gap in the operation of the rigs between the current contracts and subsequent contracts.  When oil and natural gas prices are low or it is expected that such prices will decrease in the future, we may be unable to obtain drilling contracts at attractive dayrates or at all.  We may not be able to obtain new drilling contracts in direct continuation with existing contracts or for our uncontracted newbuild unit, or depending on prevailing market conditions, we may enter into drilling contracts at dayrates substantially below the existing dayrates or on terms otherwise less favorable compared to existing contract terms, which may have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Our drilling contracts may be terminated due to a number of events, and, during depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to repudiate or renegotiate their contracts.

Certain of our drilling contracts with customers may be cancelable at the option of the customer upon payment of an early termination payment.  Such payments may not, however, fully compensate us for the loss of the contract.  Drilling contracts also customarily provide for either automatic termination or termination at the option of the customer, typically without the payment of any termination fee, under various circumstances such as non-performance, as a result of significant downtime or impaired performance caused by equipment or operational issues, or sustained periods of downtime due to force majeure events.  Many of these events are beyond our control.  During periods of depressed market conditions, we are subject to an increased risk of our customers seeking to repudiate their contracts, including through claims of non-performance.  We have experienced, and are at continued risk of experiencing, early contract terminations in a weak commodity price environment as operators look to reduce their capital expenditures.  Our customers’ ability to perform their obligations under their drilling contracts, including their ability to fulfill their indemnity obligations to us, may also be negatively impacted by an economic downturn.  Our customers, which include national oil companies, often have significant bargaining leverage over us.  If our customers cancel some of our contracts, and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, or if contracts are suspended for an extended period of time or if a number of our contracts are renegotiated, it could adversely affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  See “Item 1. Business—Contract Drilling Services.”

We must make substantial capital and operating expenditures to maintain our active fleet or to reactivate our stacked or idle fleet, and we may be required to make significant capital expenditures to maintain our competitiveness, to execute our growth plan and to comply with laws and applicable regulations and standards of governmental authorities and organizations.

We must make substantial capital and operating expenditures to maintain our active fleet or to reactivate our stacked or idle fleet.  These expenditures could increase as a result of changes in the cost of labor and materials, requirements of customers, the size of our fleet, the cost of replacement parts for existing rigs, the geographic location of the rigs and the length of drilling contracts.  Changes in offshore drilling technology, customer requirements for new or upgraded equipment and competition within our industry may require us to make significant capital expenditures in order to maintain our competitiveness and to execute our growth plan.  Changes in governmental regulations, including environmental requirements, and changes in safety or other equipment standards, as well as compliance with standards imposed by maritime self-regulatory organizations, may cause our capital expenditures to increase or require us to make additional unforeseen capital expenditures.  As a result of these factors, we may be required to take our rigs out of service for extended periods of time, with corresponding losses of revenues, in order to make such alterations or to add such equipment.  In the future, market conditions may not justify these expenditures or enable us to operate our older rigs profitably during the remainder of their economic lives.

If we are unable to fund capital expenditures with our cash flows from operations or proceeds from sales of non-strategic assets, we may be required to either incur additional borrowings or raise capital through the sale of debt or equity securities.  Our ability to access the capital markets may be limited by our financial condition at the time, perceptions of us or our industry, by changes in laws and regulations or interpretation thereof and by adverse market conditions resulting from, among other things, general economic conditions and contingencies and uncertainties that are beyond our control.  If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, existing shareholders may experience dilution.  Our failure to obtain the funds for necessary future capital expenditures could have a material adverse effect on our business and on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We have a substantial amount of debt, including secured debt, and we may lose the ability to obtain future financing and suffer competitive disadvantages.

At December 31, 2019 and 2018, our total debt was $9.3 billion and $10.0 billion, respectively, of which $3.3 billion and $2.6 billion, respectively, was secured.  We have a bank credit agreement, as amended, that established a $1.3 billion secured revolving credit facility (the “Secured Credit Facility”), which is currently undrawn, the borrowings under which would also be secured.  This substantial level of debt and other obligations could have significant adverse consequences on our business and future prospects, including the following:

we may be unable to obtain financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, distributions, share repurchases, or other purposes;
we may be unable to use operating cash flow in other areas of our business because we must dedicate a substantial portion of these funds to service the debt;
we could become more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including increases in interest rates, particularly given our substantial indebtedness, some of which bears interest at variable rates;

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we may be unable to meet financial ratios in the agreements governing certain of our debt and finance lease or satisfy certain other conditions included in our debt agreements, which could result in our inability to meet requirements for borrowings under our credit agreement or a default under these agreements, impose restrictions with respect to our access to certain of our capital, and trigger cross default provisions in our other debt instruments;
if we default under the terms of our secured financing arrangements, the secured debtholders may, among other things, foreclose on the collateral securing the debt, including the applicable drilling units; and
we may be less able to take advantage of significant business opportunities and to react to changes in market or industry conditions than our less levered competitors.

See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

credit rating agencies have rated our debt below investment grade, which could limit our access to capital and have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Our non-credit enhanced senior unsecured long-term debt (our “Debt Rating”) has been rated below investment grade.  Our Debt Ratings could have adverse consequences for our business and future prospects and could cause the following:

limitations on our ability to access debt markets, including for the purpose of refinancing our existing debt or replacing our Secured Credit Facility;
less favorable terms and conditions on any refinancing arrangements, debt issuances or bank credit agreements, some of which could require collateral and restrict, among other things, our ability to pay distributions or repurchase shares;
increases to certain fees under our Secured Credit Facility and interest rates under indentures governing certain of our senior notes;
reduced willingness of current and prospective customers to transact business with us;
requirements from creditors or customers for additional insurance, guarantees and collateral;
limitations on our access to bank and third-party guarantees, surety bonds and letters of credit; and
reductions to or eliminations of the level of credit suppliers and financial institutions may provide through payment terms or intraday funding when dealing with us thereby increasing the need for higher levels of cash on hand, which would decrease our ability to repay debt balances.

Our Debt Ratings have caused some of the effects listed above, and any further downgrades may cause or exacerbate, any of the effects listed above and could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We rely heavily on a relatively small number of customers and the loss of a significant customer or a dispute that leads to the loss of a customer could have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

We engage in offshore drilling services for most of the leading integrated oil companies or their affiliates, as well as for many government-owned or government-controlled oil companies and other independent oil companies.  For the year ended December 31, 2019, our most significant customers were Shell, Equinor and Chevron, accounting for approximately 26 percent, 21 percent and 17 percent, respectively, of our total contract drilling revenues.  As of February 14, 2020, the customers with the most significant aggregate amount of contract backlog were Shell, Equinor and Chevron, representing approximately 49 percent, 26 percent and 13 percent, respectively, of our total contract backlog.  The loss of any of these customers or another significant customer, or a decline in payments under any of our drilling contracts, could, at least in the short term, have an adverse effect on our business and on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In addition, our drilling contracts subject us to counterparty risks.  The ability of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the offshore drilling industry, prevailing prices for oil and natural gas, the overall financial condition of the counterparty, the dayrates received and the level of expenditures necessary to maintain drilling activities.  In addition, in depressed market conditions, such as we are currently experiencing, our customers may no longer need a drilling rig that is currently under contract or may be able to obtain a comparable drilling rig at a lower dayrate.  Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under an agreement with us, we could sustain losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business and on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Worldwide financial, economic and political conditions could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Worldwide financial and economic conditions could restrict our ability to access the capital markets at a time when we would like, or need, to access such markets, which could have an impact on our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions.  Worldwide economic conditions have in the past impacted, and could in the future impact, the lenders participating in our credit facilities and our customers, causing them to fail to meet their obligations to us.  If economic conditions preclude or limit financing from banking institutions participating in our credit facilities, we may not be able to obtain similar financing from other institutions.  A slowdown in economic activity could further reduce worldwide demand for energy and extend or worsen the current period of low oil and natural gas prices.  These potential developments, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  In addition, turmoil and hostilities in the Middle East, North Africa and other geographic areas and countries are adding to overall risk.  An extended period of negative outlook for the world economy could further reduce the overall demand for oil and natural gas and for our services.  A further decline in oil and natural gas prices or an extension of the current low oil and natural gas prices

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could reduce demand for our drilling services and have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Public health threats could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Public health threats, such as severe influenza, coronaviruses and other highly communicable viruses or diseases, outbreaks of which have already occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, could adversely impact our operations, the operations of our customers and the global economy, including the worldwide demand for hydrocarbons and the level of demand for our services.  The quarantine of personnel or inability to access our offices or rigs could adversely affect our operations.  Travel restrictions or operational problems in any part of the world in which we operate, or any reduction in the demand for drilling services caused by public health threats in the future, may materially impact our operations and have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our operating and maintenance costs will not necessarily fluctuate in proportion to changes in our operating revenues.

Our operating and maintenance costs will not necessarily fluctuate in proportion to changes in our operating revenues.  Costs for operating a rig are generally fixed or only semi-variable regardless of the dayrate being earned.  In addition, should our rigs incur unplanned downtime while on contract or idle time between drilling contracts, we will not always reduce the staff on those rigs because we could use the crew to prepare the rig for its next contract.  During times of reduced activity, reductions in costs may not be immediate because portions of the crew may be required to prepare rigs for stacking, after which time the crew members may be reassigned to active rigs or released.  As our rigs are mobilized from one geographic location to another, the labor and other operating and maintenance costs can vary significantly.  In general, labor costs increase primarily due to higher salary levels and inflation.  Equipment maintenance costs fluctuate depending upon the type of activity the unit is performing and the age and condition of the equipment, and these costs could increase for short or extended periods as a result of regulatory or customer requirements that raise maintenance standards above historical levels.  The amount of contract preparation and reactivation costs vary based on the scope and length of the contract preparation or reactivation project, and the recognition of such costs varies depending on the duration of the firm contractual period and other contract terms.

Our shipyard projects and operations are subject to delays and cost overruns.

As of February 14, 2020, we had under construction two ultra-deepwater drillships.  We also have a variety of other more limited shipyard projects at any given time.  These shipyard projects are subject to the risks of delay or cost overruns inherent in any such construction project resulting from numerous factors, including the following:

shipyard availability, failures and difficulties;
shortages of equipment, materials or skilled labor;
unscheduled delays in the delivery of ordered materials and equipment;
design and engineering problems, including those relating to the commissioning of newly designed equipment;
latent damages or deterioration to hull, equipment and machinery in excess of engineering estimates and assumptions;
unanticipated actual or purported change orders;
disputes with shipyards and suppliers;
failure or delayed deliveries of significant parts or equipment due to supplier shortages, constraints, disruption or quality issues;
availability of suppliers to recertify equipment for enhanced regulations;
strikes, labor disputes and work stoppages;
customer acceptance delays;
adverse weather conditions, including damage caused by such conditions;
terrorist acts, war, piracy and civil unrest;
unanticipated cost increases; and
difficulty in obtaining necessary permits or approvals.

These factors may contribute to cost variations and delays in the delivery of our newbuild units and other rigs undergoing shipyard projects.  Cost variations may result in, among other things, disputes with the shipyards that construct our drilling units.  In addition, delayed delivery of our newbuild units or other rigs undergoing shipyard projects would impact contract commencement, resulting in a loss of revenues we could earn, and may also cause customers to terminate or shorten the term of the drilling contract for the rig pursuant to applicable late delivery clauses.  In the event of termination of any of these drilling contracts, we may not be able to secure a replacement contract on as favorable terms, if at all.

Our operations also rely on a significant supply of capital and consumable spare parts and equipment to maintain and repair our fleet.  We also rely on the supply of ancillary services, including supply boats and helicopters.  Our reliance on our suppliers, manufacturers and service providers to secure equipment, parts, components and sub-systems used in our operations exposes us to volatility in the quality, prices and availability of such items.  Certain parts and equipment that we use in our operations may be available only from a small number of suppliers, manufacturers or service providers, or in some cases must be sourced through a single supplier, manufacturer or service provider.  A disruption in the deliveries from our suppliers, manufacturers or service providers, capacity constraints, production disruptions, price increases, quality control issues, recalls or other decreased availability of parts and equipment or ancillary services could adversely affect our ability to meet our commitments to customers, adversely impact our operations, increase our operating costs and result in increases in rig downtime and delays in the repair and maintenance of our fleet.

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Impact of our compliance with or breach of environmental laws can be costly, expose us to liability and could limit our operations.

Our business in the offshore drilling industry is affected by laws and regulations relating to the energy industry and the environment, including international conventions and treaties, and regional, national, state, and local laws and regulations.  The offshore drilling industry depends on demand for services from the oil and gas exploration and production industry, and, accordingly, we are directly affected by the adoption of laws and regulations that, for economic, environmental or other policy reasons, curtail or delay exploration and development drilling for oil and gas.  Offshore drilling in certain areas has been curtailed and, in certain cases, prohibited because of concerns over protection of the environment.  A decrease in demand for offshore drilling services due to regulatory restrictions or environmental concerns could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  In addition, compliance with environmental laws, regulations and standards, where applicable, may require us to make significant capital expenditures, such as the installation of costly equipment or implementation of operational changes, and may affect the resale values or useful lives of our rigs.  We may also incur additional costs in order to comply with other existing and future regulatory obligations, including, but not limited to, costs relating to air emissions, including greenhouse gases, the management of ballast waters, maintenance and inspection, development and implementation of emergency procedures and maintenance of insurance coverage or other financial assurance of our ability to address pollution incidents.  These costs could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  A failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations.

To the extent new laws are enacted, existing laws are changed or other governmental actions are taken that prohibit or restrict offshore drilling or impose additional environmental protection requirements that result in increased costs to the oil and gas industry, in general, or the offshore drilling industry, in particular, our business or prospects could be materially adversely affected.  The operation of our drilling rigs will require certain governmental approvals, some of which may involve public hearings and costly undertakings on our part.  We may not obtain such approvals or such approvals may not be obtained in a timely manner.  If we fail to timely secure the necessary governmental approvals or permits, our customers may have the right to terminate or seek to renegotiate their drilling contracts to our detriment.  The amendment or modification of existing laws and regulations or the adoption of new laws and regulations curtailing or further regulating exploratory or development drilling or production of oil and gas and compliance with any such new or amended legislation or regulations could have an adverse effect on our business or on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

As a contract driller with operations in certain offshore areas, we may be liable for damages and costs incurred in connection with oil spills or disposal of wastes related to those operations, and we may also be subject to significant fines and other liabilities in connection with spills.  For example, an oil spill could result in significant liability, including fines, penalties and criminal liability and remediation, restoration or compensation costs for environmental or natural resource damages, as well as third-party damages, to the extent that the contractual indemnification provisions in our drilling contracts are not enforceable or otherwise sufficient, or if our customers are unwilling or unable to contractually indemnify us against these risks.  Additionally, we may not be able to obtain such indemnities in our future drilling contracts, and our customers may not have the financial capability to fulfill their contractual obligations to us.  Also, these indemnities may be held to be unenforceable in certain jurisdictions, as a result of public policy or for other reasons.  Laws and regulations protecting the environment have become more stringent in recent years, and may in some cases impose strict liability on facility or vessel owners or operators, rendering a person liable for environmental damage without regard to negligence.  These laws and regulations may expose us to liability for the conduct of, or conditions caused by, others or for acts that were in compliance with all applicable laws at the time they were performed.  The application of these requirements or the adoption of new requirements or measures could have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

The global nature of our operations involves additional risks.

We operate in various regions throughout the world, which may expose us to political and other uncertainties, including risks of:

terrorist acts, war, piracy and civil unrest;
seizure, expropriation or nationalization of our equipment;
expropriation or nationalization of our customers’ property;
repudiation or nationalization of contracts;
imposition of trade or immigration barriers;
import-export quotas;
wage and price controls;
changes in law and regulatory requirements, including changes in interpretation and enforcement;
involvement in judicial proceedings in unfavorable jurisdictions;
damage to our equipment or violence directed at our employees, including kidnappings;
complications associated with supplying, repairing and replacing equipment in remote locations;
the inability to move income or capital; and
currency exchange fluctuations and currency exchange restrictions, including exchange or similar controls that may limit our ability to convert local currency into U.S. dollars and transfer funds out of a local jurisdiction.

Our non-U.S. contract drilling operations are subject to various laws and regulations in certain countries in which we operate, including laws and regulations relating to the import and export, equipment and operation of drilling units, currency conversions and repatriation, oil and gas exploration and development, taxation and social contributions of offshore earnings and earnings of expatriate

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personnel.  We are also subject to the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) and other U.S. and non-U.S. laws and regulations governing our international operations.  In addition, various state and municipal governments, universities and other investors have proposed or adopted divestment and other initiatives regarding investments including, with respect to state governments, by state retirement systems in companies that do business with countries that have been designated as state sponsors of terrorism by the U.S. State Department.  Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those relating to sanctions and export restrictions, may subject us to criminal sanctions or civil remedies, including fines, denial of export privileges, injunctions or seizures of assets.  Investors could view any potential violations of OFAC regulations negatively, which could adversely affect our reputation and the market for our shares.

Governments in some countries have become increasingly active in regulating and controlling the ownership of concessions and companies holding concessions, the exploration for oil and gas and other aspects of the oil and gas industries in their countries, including local content requirements for participating in tenders for certain drilling contracts.  Many governments favor or effectively require the awarding of drilling contracts to local contractors or require nonlocal contractors to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction or require use of a local agent.  In addition, government action, including initiatives by OPEC, may continue to cause oil or gas price volatility.  In some areas of the world, this governmental activity has adversely affected the amount of exploration and development work by major oil companies and may continue to do so.

Certain of our drilling contracts are partially payable in local currency.  The amounts, if any, of local currency received under these drilling contracts may exceed our local currency needs, leading to an accumulation of excess local currency balances, which, in certain instances, may be subject to either temporary blocking or other difficulties converting to U.S. dollars, our functional currency, or to other currencies in which we operate.  Excess amounts of local currency may be exposed to the risk of currency exchange losses.

The shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations.  Our import and export activities are governed by unique customs laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate.  Moreover, many countries, including the U.S., control the import and export of certain goods, services and technology and impose related import and export recordkeeping and reporting obligations.  Governments also may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and other entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, and we are also subject to the U.S. anti-boycott law.

The laws and regulations concerning import and export activity, recordkeeping and reporting, import and export control and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing.  These laws and regulations may be enacted, amended, enforced or interpreted in a manner materially impacting our operations.  Ongoing economic challenges may increase some governments’ efforts to enact, enforce, amend or interpret laws and regulations as a method to increase revenue.  Shipments can be delayed and denied import or export for a variety of reasons, some of which are outside our control and some of which may result from failure to comply with existing legal and regulatory regimes.  Shipping delays or denials could cause unscheduled operational downtime.

Our ability to operate worldwide depends on our ability to obtain the necessary visas and work permits for our personnel to travel in and out of, and to work in, the jurisdictions in which we operate.  Governmental actions in some of the jurisdictions in which we operate may make it difficult for us to move our personnel in and out of these jurisdictions by delaying or withholding the approval of these permits.  If we are not able to obtain visas and work permits for the employees we need to conduct our operations on a timely basis, we might not be able to perform our obligations under our drilling contracts, which could allow our customers to cancel the contracts.  If our customers cancel some of our drilling contracts, and we are unable to secure new drilling contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Our business involves numerous operating hazards, and our insurance and indemnities from our customers may not be adequate to cover potential losses from our operations.

Our operations are subject to the usual hazards inherent in the drilling of oil and gas wells, such as, blowouts, reservoir damage, loss of production, loss of well control, lost or stuck drill strings, equipment defects, craterings, fires, explosions and pollution.  Contract drilling requires the use of heavy equipment and exposure to hazardous conditions, which may subject us to liability claims by employees, customers and other parties.  These hazards can cause personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment, pollution or environmental or natural resource damage, claims by third parties or customers and suspension of operations.  Our offshore fleet is also subject to hazards inherent in marine operations, either while on site or during mobilization, such as capsizing, sinking, grounding, collision, piracy, damage from severe weather and marine life infestations.

The South China Sea, the Northwest Coast of Australia and the U.S. Gulf of Mexico are areas subject to typhoons, hurricanes or other extreme weather conditions on a relatively frequent basis, and our drilling rigs in these regions may be exposed to damage or total loss by these storms, some of which may not be covered by insurance.  The occurrence of these events could result in the suspension of drilling operations, damage to or destruction of the equipment involved and injury to or death of rig personnel.  Some experts believe global climate change could increase the frequency and severity of these extreme weather conditions.  Operations may also be suspended because of machinery breakdowns, abnormal drilling conditions, failure of subcontractors to perform or supply goods or services, or personnel shortages.  We customarily provide contract indemnity to our customers for certain claims that could be asserted by us relating to damage to or loss of our equipment, including rigs, and claims that could be asserted by us or our employees relating to personal injury or loss of life.

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Damage to the environment or natural resources could also result from our operations, particularly through spillage of hydrocarbons, fuel, lubricants or other chemicals and substances used in drilling operations, or extensive uncontrolled fires.  We may also be subject to property damage, environmental indemnity and other claims by oil and natural gas companies or other third parties.  Drilling involves certain risks associated with the loss of control of a well, such as blowout, cratering, the cost to regain control of or redrill the well and remediation of associated pollution.  Our customers may be unable or unwilling to indemnify us against such risks.  In addition, a court may decide that certain indemnities in our current or future drilling contracts are not enforceable.  The law generally considers contractual indemnity for criminal fines and penalties to be against public policy, and the enforceability of an indemnity as to other matters may be limited.

Our insurance policies and drilling contracts contain rights to indemnity that may not adequately cover our losses, and we do not have insurance coverage or rights to indemnity for all risks.  We have two main types of insurance coverage: (1) hull and machinery coverage for physical damage to our property and equipment and (2) excess liability coverage, which generally covers offshore risks, such as personal injury, third-party property claims, and third-party non-crew claims, including wreck removal and pollution.  We generally have no hull and machinery insurance coverage for damages caused by named storms in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  We maintain per occurrence deductibles that generally range up to $10 million for various third-party liabilities, and we self-insure $50 million of the $750 million excess liability coverage through our wholly owned captive insurance company.  We also retain the risk for any liability that exceeds our excess liability coverage.  However, pollution and environmental risks generally are not completely insurable.

If a significant accident or other event occurs that is not fully covered by our insurance or by an enforceable or recoverable indemnity, the occurrence could adversely affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  The amount of our insurance may also be less than the related impact on enterprise value after a loss.  Our insurance coverage will not in all situations provide sufficient funds to protect us from all liabilities that could result from our drilling operations.  Our coverage includes annual aggregate policy limits.  As a result, we generally retain the risk for any losses in excess of these limits.  We generally do not carry insurance for loss of revenue, and certain other claims may also not be reimbursed by insurance carriers.  Any such lack of reimbursement may cause us to incur substantial costs.  In addition, we could decide to retain more risk in the future, resulting in higher risk of losses, which could be material.  Moreover, we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance in the future at rates that we consider reasonable or be able to obtain insurance against certain risks.

The continuing effects of the enhanced regulations enacted in the past decade could have an adverse effect on our business and worldwide operations.

In the last decade, enhanced governmental safety and environmental requirements applicable to our operations were adopted by U.S. federal agencies for drilling in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  In order to obtain drilling permits, operators must submit applications that demonstrate compliance with the enhanced regulations, which require independent third-party inspections, certification of well design and well control equipment and emergency response plans in the event of a blowout, among other requirements.  Operators have had, and may in the future have, difficulties obtaining drilling permits in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  In addition, the oil and gas industry has adopted new equipment and operating standards, such as the American Petroleum Institute Standard 53, related to the installation and testing of well control equipment.  These safety and environmental guidelines and standards and any new guidelines or standards the U.S. government or industry may issue or any other steps the U.S. government or industry may take, could disrupt or delay operations, increase the cost of operations, increase out-of-service time or reduce the area of operations for drilling rigs in the U.S. and non-U.S. offshore areas.

Other governments could take actions similar to those implemented by the U.S. related to implementing new safety and environmental regulations in the future.  Additionally, some of our customers have elected to voluntarily comply with some or all of the non-mandatory inspections, certification requirements and safety and environmental guidelines on rigs operating outside of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  Additional U.S. and other governmental regulations and requirements concerning licensing, taxation, equipment specifications and training requirements or the voluntary adoption of such requirements or guidelines by our customers could increase the costs of our operations, increase certification and permitting requirements, increase review periods and impose increased liability on offshore operations.  The continuing effects of the enhanced regulations may also decrease the demand for drilling services, negatively affect dayrates and increase out-of-service time, which could ultimately have an adverse effect on our revenues and profitability.

Corporate restructuring activity, divestitures, acquisitions and other business combinations and reorganizations could adversely affect our ability to achieve our strategic goals.

We have undertaken and continue to seek appropriate opportunities for restructuring our organization and engaging in strategic divestitures, acquisitions and other business combinations in order to optimize our fleet and strengthen our competitiveness.  We face risks arising from these activities, which could adversely affect our ability to achieve our strategic goals, such as the following:

we may be unable to realize the growth or investment opportunities, improvement of our financial position and other expected benefits by these activities in the expected time period or at all;
transactions may not be completed as scheduled or at all due to legal or regulatory requirements, market conditions or contractual and other conditions to which such transactions are subject;
unanticipated adverse consequences could arise in the integration or separation processes, including unanticipated restructuring or separation costs and liabilities, as well as delays or other difficulties in transitioning, coordinating, consolidating, replacing and integrating personnel, information and management systems, and customer products and services; and
the diversion of management and key employees' attention may detract from our ability to increase revenues and minimize costs.

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Failure to recruit and retain key personnel could hurt our operations.

We depend on the continuing efforts of key members of our management, as well as other highly skilled personnel, to operate and provide technical services and support for our business worldwide.  Historically, competition for the personnel required for drilling operations has intensified as the number of rigs activated, added to worldwide fleets or under construction increased, leading to shortages of qualified personnel in the industry and creating upward pressure on wages and higher turnover.  We may experience a reduction in the experience level of our personnel as a result of any increased turnover and ongoing staff reduction initiatives, which could lead to higher downtime and more operating incidents, which in turn could decrease revenues and increase costs.  If increased competition for qualified personnel were to intensify in the future we may experience increases in costs or limits on operations.

Our labor costs and the operating restrictions under which we operate could increase as a result of collective bargaining negotiations and changes in labor laws and regulations.

Approximately 47 percent of our total workforce, primarily employed in Norway, Brazil, the U.K., Angola and Australia are represented by, and some of our contracted labor work is subject to, collective bargaining agreements, substantially all of which are subject to annual salary negotiation.  These negotiations sometimes result in strikes and could result in higher personnel expenses, other increased costs or increased operational restrictions as the outcome of such negotiations affect the market for all offshore employees, not just the union members.  Legislation has been introduced in the U.S. Congress that could encourage additional unionization efforts in the U.S., as well as increase the chances that such efforts succeed.  Additional unionization efforts, if successful, new collective bargaining agreements or work stoppages could materially increase our labor costs and operating restrictions.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery statutes, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, could result in fines, criminal penalties, drilling contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.

The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (“Bribery Act”) and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions, generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business.  We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices.  If we are found to be liable for violations under the FCPA, the Bribery Act or other similar laws, either due to our acts or omissions or due to the acts or omissions of others, including our partners in our various joint ventures and of the current or former officers or directors of any companies we have acquired, we could suffer from civil and criminal penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business or our consolidated financial position and results of operations.  In addition, investors could negatively view potential violations, inquiries or allegations of misconduct under the FCPA, the Bribery Act or similar laws, which could adversely affect our reputation and the market for our shares.

We could also face fines, sanctions and other penalties from authorities in relevant jurisdictions, including prohibition of our participating in or curtailment of business operations in those jurisdictions and the seizure of rigs or other assets.  Additionally, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of claims by customers, agents, shareholders, debt holders, other interest holders, current or former employees or other constituents of our company who, in connection with alleged or actual noncompliance with antibribery and related laws, may seek to impose penalties, seek remedies, terminate drilling contracts or take other actions adverse to our interests.  Our business and results of operations may be adversely affected if we are required to dedicate significant time and resources to investigate and resolve allegations of misconduct, regardless of the merit of such allegations.  Further, disclosure of the subject matter of any investigation could adversely affect our reputation and our ability to obtain new business with potential customers, to retain existing business with our current customers, to attract and retain employees and to access the capital markets.

Regulatory and various other risks associated with greenhouse gases and climate change could have a negative impact on our business.

Scientific studies have suggested that emissions of certain gases, including greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, contribute to warming of the earth’s atmosphere and other climatic changes.  In response to such studies, the issue of climate change and the effect of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular emissions from fossil fuels, is attracting increasing attention worldwide.  For example, in December 2015, 195 nations adopted, by consensus, the Paris Agreement, which went into effect in November 2016.  The Paris Agreement aims to limit increases in global temperatures to well below two degrees Celsius.  While the greenhouse gas emission reductions called for by the Paris Agreement are not binding and the U.S. has initiated the process to withdraw from the agreement, we expect continued and increased attention to climate change.  This attention has led, and we expect it to continue to lead, to additional regulations designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions domestically and internationally.  Such attention could also result in other adverse impacts for the oil and gas industry, including further restrictions or bans imposed by lawmakers, lawsuits by governments or third-parties seeking recoveries for damages resulting from the combustion of fuels that may contribute to climate change effects, or reduced interest from investors if they elect in the future to shift some or all of their investments to non-energy related sectors.  To the extent financial markets view climate change and greenhouse emissions as a financial risk, this could negatively impact our cost of or access to capital.  Because our business depends on the level of activity in the oil and gas industry, existing or future laws, regulations, treaties or international agreements related to greenhouse gases and climate change, or related political, litigation or financial risks, including incentives to conserve energy or use alternative energy sources, could have a negative impact on our business if such laws, regulations, treaties or international agreements reduce the worldwide demand for oil and gas or limit drilling opportunities.  In addition, such laws, regulations, treaties or

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international agreements or related risks could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions, which may have an adverse effect on our business.  Further, some experts believe global climate change could increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather conditions, the impacts of which could interfere with our operations, cause damage to our equipment as well as cause other financial and operational impacts, including those that could result from any impact of such conditions on our customers.

We are subject to investigations and litigation that, if not resolved in our favor and not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.

We are subject to a variety of disputes, investigations and litigation.  Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to and have been involved in litigation with certain of our customers and other constituents.  Certain of our subsidiaries are named as defendants in numerous lawsuits alleging personal grievances or injury, including as a result of exposure to asbestos or toxic fumes or resulting from other occupational diseases, such as silicosis, and various other medical issues that can remain undiscovered for a considerable amount of time.  Some of these subsidiaries that have been put on notice of potential liabilities have no assets.  Certain subsidiaries are subject to litigation relating to environmental damage.  Our patent for dual-activity technology has been successfully challenged in certain jurisdictions.  We are also subject to a number of significant tax disputes.  We cannot predict the outcome of the investigations and cases involving the Company or our subsidiaries or the potential costs to resolve them.  Insurance may not be applicable or sufficient in all cases, insurers may not remain solvent and policies may not be located.  Suits against non-asset-owning subsidiaries have and may in the future give rise to alter ego or successor-in-interest claims against us and our asset-owning subsidiaries to the extent a subsidiary is unable to pay a claim or insurance is not available or sufficient to cover the claims.  To the extent that one or more pending or future investigations or litigation matters is not resolved in our favor and is not covered by insurance, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Our information technology systems are subject to cybersecurity risks and threats.

We depend on digital technologies to conduct our offshore and onshore operations, to collect payments from customers and to pay vendors and employees.  Our data protection measures and measures taken by our customers and vendors may not prevent unauthorized access of information technology systems.  Threats to our information technology systems, and the systems of our customers and vendors, associated with cybersecurity risks and cyber-incidents or attacks continue to grow.  Threats to our systems and our customers’ and vendors’ systems may derive from human error, fraud or malice on the part of employees or third parties, or may result from accidental technological failure.  In addition, breaches to our systems and systems of our customers and vendors could go unnoticed for some period of time.  Risks associated with these threats include disruptions of certain systems on our rigs; other impairments of our ability to conduct our operations; loss of intellectual property, proprietary information or customer and vendor data; disruption of our customers’ and vendors’ operations; misappropriation of assets; loss or damage to our customer and vendor data delivery systems; and increased costs to prevent, respond to or mitigate cybersecurity events.  If such a cyber-incident were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business or on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In addition, new laws and regulations governing data privacy and the unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and recent California legislation, pose increasingly complex compliance challenges and potentially elevate our costs.  Any failure by us to comply with these laws and regulations, including as a result of a security or privacy breach, could result in significant penalties and liabilities for us.  Additionally, if we acquire a company that has violated or is not in compliance with applicable data protection laws, we may incur significant liabilities and penalties as a result.

Acts of terrorism, piracy and political and social unrest could affect the markets for drilling services, which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Acts of terrorism and social unrest, brought about by world political events or otherwise, have caused instability in the world’s financial and insurance markets in the past and may occur in the future.  Such acts could be directed against companies such as ours.  In addition, acts of terrorism, piracy and social unrest could lead to increased volatility in prices for crude oil and natural gas and could affect the markets for drilling services.  Insurance premiums could increase and coverage may be unavailable in the future.  Government regulations may effectively preclude us from engaging in business activities in certain countries.  These regulations could be amended to cover countries where we currently operate or where we may wish to operate in the future.  Our drilling contracts do not generally provide indemnification against loss of capital assets or loss of revenues resulting from acts of terrorism, piracy or political or social unrest.  We have limited insurance for our assets providing coverage for physical damage losses resulting from certain risks, such as terrorist acts, piracy, vandalism, sabotage, civil unrest, expropriation and acts of war, and we do not carry insurance for loss of revenues resulting from such risks.

We may not realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions.

There is a risk that some or all of the expected benefits of our acquisitions may fail to materialize, or may not occur within the time periods anticipated.  The realization of such benefits may be affected by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the strength or weakness of the economy and competitive factors in the areas where we do business, the effects of competition in the markets in which we operate, and the impact of changes in the laws and regulations regulating the offshore drilling industry or affecting domestic or foreign operations.  The continued success of the acquisitions, including anticipated benefits and cost savings, will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully market the assets of each of these companies in a manner that results in various benefits, including, among other things, an expanded market reach and operating efficiencies, and that does not materially disrupt existing relationships nor result in

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decreased revenues.  Although we expect that the further elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of additional efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses, should allow us to further offset integration-related costs over time, this additional net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, or at all.  These costs, as well as other unanticipated costs and expenses, could have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, operating results and cash flows.  Failure to realize the anticipated further benefits of the acquisitions may impact the financial performance of the combined company.

Other risks

We have significant carrying amounts of long-lived assets that are subject to impairment testing.

At December 31, 2019, the carrying amount of our property and equipment was $18.8 billion, representing 78 percent of our total assets.  In accordance with our accounting policies, we review our property and equipment for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that carrying amounts of our assets held and used may not be recoverable.  We also review the carrying amounts of assets at the time that we classify such assets as held for sale.  In each of the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, we recognized an aggregate loss of $578 million, $999 million and $1.4 billion, respectively, associated with the impairment of certain assets that we determined were impaired at the time the assets were classified as held for sale.  In the year ended December 31, 2017, we also recognized an aggregate loss of $94 million associated with the impairment of our midwater floater asset group.  Future expectations of lower dayrates or rig utilization rates or a significant change to the composition of one or more of our asset groups could result in the recognition of additional losses on impairment of our long-lived asset groups if future cash flow expectations, based on information available to management at the time of measurement, indicate that the carrying amount of our asset groups may be impaired.

A change in tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation, of any country in which we have operations, are incorporated or are resident could result in a higher effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings, which could result in a significant adverse effect on our earnings and cash flows from operations.

We are subject to changes in applicable tax laws, treaties or regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate and earn income, and such changes could include laws or policies directed toward companies organized in jurisdictions with low tax rates.  A material change in the tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation or application, of or by any country in which we have significant operations, or in which we are incorporated or resident, could result in a higher effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings and such change could be significant to our financial results.  Switzerland, for example, has been carefully considering various tax reform proposals in response to certain guidance from and demands by the European Union (the “EU”) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”) and has enacted a substantial tax reform effective January 2020.  Similarly, the OECD issued its action plan of tax reform measures that called for member states to take action to prevent base erosion and profit shifting.  Some of these measures impact transfer pricing, requirements to qualify for tax treaty benefits, and the definition of permanent establishments depending on each jurisdiction’s adoption and interpretation of such proposals.  Respective countries have adopted various measures into their own tax laws.  In addition, the EU issued its Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives in 2016 and 2017 that required its member states to adopt specific tax reform measures starting in 2019.  Other tax jurisdictions in which we operate may consider implementing similar legislation.  Any material change to tax laws or policies, their interpretation or the adoption of new interpretations of existing laws and rulings in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate could result in a higher effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings and such change could have a significant adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

A loss of a major tax dispute or a successful tax challenge to our operating structure, intercompany pricing policies or the taxable presence of our key subsidiaries in certain countries could result in a higher effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings, which could result in a significant adverse effect on our earnings and cash flows from operations.

We are subject to tax laws, treaties and regulations in the countries in which we operate and earn income.  Our income taxes are based on the applicable tax laws and tax rates in effect in the countries in which we operate and earn income as well as upon our operating structures in these countries.  Our income tax returns are subject to review and examination in these jurisdictions, and we do not recognize the benefit of income tax positions we believe are more likely than not to be disallowed upon challenge by a tax authority.  If any tax authority successfully challenges our operational structure, intercompany pricing policies or the taxable presence of our key subsidiaries in certain countries; or if the terms of certain income tax treaties are interpreted in a manner that is adverse to our structure; or if we lose a material tax dispute in any country, our effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings could increase substantially and our earnings and cash flows from operations could be materially adversely affected.  For example, we cannot be certain that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will not successfully contend that we or any of our key subsidiaries were or are engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. or that we or any of our key subsidiaries maintained or maintain a permanent establishment in the U.S.  The determination of the aforementioned, among other things, involves considerable uncertainty.  If we or any of our key subsidiaries were determined to have been engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. through a permanent establishment, then we could be subject to U.S. corporate income and additional branch profits taxes on the portion of our earnings effectively connected to such U.S. business during the period in which this was considered to have occurred.  If this occurs, our effective tax rate on worldwide earnings for that period could increase substantially, and our earnings and cash flows from operations for that period could be adversely affected.

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U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a passive foreign investment company, which would have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.

A foreign corporation will be treated as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75 percent of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of passive income or (2) at least 50 percent of the average value of the corporation's assets produce or are held for the production of those types of passive income.  For purposes of these tests, passive income includes dividends, interest and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and certain rents and royalties, but does not include income derived from performing services.

We believe that we have not been and will not be a PFIC with respect to any taxable year.  Our income from offshore contract drilling services should be treated as services income for purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC.  Accordingly, we believe that our income from our offshore contract drilling services should not constitute passive income, and the assets that we own and operate in connection with the production of that income should not constitute passive assets.  There is significant legal authority supporting this position, including statutory provisions, legislative history, case law and IRS pronouncements concerning the characterization, for other tax purposes, of income derived from services where a substantial component of such income is attributable to the value of the property or equipment used in connection with providing such services.  However, a prior case and an IRS pronouncement that relies on such case characterize income from time chartering of vessels as rental income rather than services income for other tax purposes.  The IRS has subsequently formally announced that it does not agree with the decision in that case.  Moreover, we believe that the terms of the time charters in the prior case differ in material respects from the terms of our drilling contracts with customers.  However, no assurance can be given that the IRS or a court will accept our position, and there is a risk that the IRS or a court could determine that we are a PFIC.

If we were treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, our U.S. shareholders would face adverse U.S. tax consequences.  Under the PFIC rules, unless a shareholder makes certain elections available under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and such elections could themselves have adverse consequences for the shareholder, the shareholder could be required to pay U.S. federal income tax at the highest applicable income tax rates on ordinary income upon the receipt of excess distributions, as defined for U.S. tax purposes, and upon any gain from the disposition of our shares, plus interest on such amounts, as if such excess distribution or gain had been recognized ratably over the shareholder’s holding period of our shares.  Additionally, under applicable statutory provisions, the preferential tax rate on qualified dividend income, which applies to dividends paid to non-corporate shareholders, does not apply to dividends paid by a foreign corporation if the foreign corporation is a PFIC for the taxable year in which the dividend is paid or the preceding taxable year.

As a Swiss corporation, our flexibility may be limited with respect to certain aspects of capital management, and we may be unable to make distributions or repurchase shares without subjecting our shareholders to Swiss withholding tax.

Under Swiss law, our shareholders may approve an authorized share capital that allows the board of directors to issue new shares without additional shareholder approval within a period of up to two years and for up to a maximum of 50 percent of a company’s issued share capital.  The authorized share capital approved by our shareholders at the May 2018 annual general meeting will expire on May 18, 2020.  Our currently available authorized share capital is limited to approximately four percent of our issued share capital as of February 12, 2020.  Accordingly, shareholders at our annual general meeting in May 2020 may be requested to approve a renewal and an increase in authorized share capital.  Additionally, subject to certain exceptions, Swiss law grants preemptive rights to existing shareholders to subscribe for new issuances of shares.  Further, Swiss law does not provide as much flexibility in the various terms that can attach to different classes of shares as the laws of some other jurisdictions.  Swiss law also reserves for shareholder approval certain corporate actions over which a board of directors would have authority in some other jurisdictions.  For example, dividends must be approved by shareholders.  These Swiss law requirements relating to our capital management may limit our flexibility, and situations may arise where greater flexibility would have provided substantial benefits to our shareholders.

Distributions to shareholders in the form of a par value reduction and dividend distributions out of qualifying additional paid-in capital are not currently subject to the 35 percent Swiss federal withholding tax.  However, the Swiss withholding tax rules could also be changed in the future, and any such change may adversely affect us or our shareholders.  In addition, over the long term, the amount of par value available for us to use for par value reductions or the amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital available for us to pay out as distributions is limited.  If we are unable to make a distribution through a reduction in par value, or out of qualifying additional paid-in capital as shown on Transocean Ltd.’s standalone Swiss statutory financial statements, we may not be able to make distributions without subjecting our shareholders to Swiss withholding taxes.

Under Swiss tax law, repurchases of shares for the purposes of capital reduction are treated as a partial liquidation subject to a 35 percent Swiss withholding tax based on the difference between the repurchase price and the related amount of par value and the related amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital, if any.  At our 2009 annual general meeting, our shareholders approved the repurchase of up to CHF 3.5 billion of our shares for cancellation under the share repurchase program.  If we repurchase shares, we expect to use an alternative procedure pursuant to which we repurchase shares via a “virtual second trading line” from market players, such as banks and institutional investors, who are generally entitled to receive a full refund of the Swiss withholding tax.  The use of such “virtual second trading line” with respect to share repurchase programs is subject to the approval of the competent Swiss tax and other authorities.  We may not be able to repurchase as many shares as we would like to repurchase for purposes of capital reduction on the “virtual second trading line” without subjecting the selling shareholders to Swiss withholding taxes.

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Swiss corporate governance may affect our business.

The Swiss Federal Council Ordinance Against Excessive Compensation at Public Companies (the “Ordinance”), among other things, (a) requires a binding shareholder “say on pay” vote with respect to the compensation of members of our executive management and board of directors, (b) generally prohibits the making of severance, advance, transaction premiums and similar payments to members of our executive management team and board of directors, and (c) requires the declassification of our board of directors and the amendment of our articles of association to specify various compensation-related matters.  At our annual general meetings, our shareholders are required to approve the maximum aggregate compensation of (1) our board of directors for the period through the successive annual general meeting and (2) our executive management team for the following year.  The Ordinance further provides for criminal penalties against directors and members of executive management in case of noncompliance with certain of its requirements.  The Ordinance may negatively affect our ability to attract and retain executive management and members of our board of directors.

As a Swiss corporation, we are subject to Swiss legal provisions that may limit our flexibility to swiftly implement certain initiatives or strategies.

We are required, from time to time, to evaluate the carrying amount of our investments in affiliates, as presented on our Swiss standalone balance sheet.  If we determine that the carrying amount of any such investment exceeds its fair value, we may conclude that such investment is impaired.  The recognized loss associated with such a non-cash impairment could result in our net assets no longer covering our statutory share capital and statutory capital reserves.  Under Swiss law, if our net assets cover less than 50 percent of our statutory share capital and statutory capital reserves, the board of directors must convene a general meeting of shareholders and propose measures to remedy such a capital loss.  The appropriate measures depend on the relevant circumstances and the magnitude of the recognized loss and may include seeking shareholder approval for offsetting the aggregate loss, or a portion thereof, with our statutory capital reserves, including qualifying additional paid-in capital otherwise available for distributions to shareholders, or raising new equity.  Depending on the circumstances, we may also need to use qualifying additional paid-in capital available for distributions in order to reduce our accumulated net loss and such use might reduce our ability to make distributions without subjecting our shareholders to Swiss withholding tax.  These Swiss law requirements could limit our flexibility to swiftly implement certain initiatives or strategies.

We are subject to anti-takeover provisions.

Our articles of association and Swiss law contain provisions that could prevent or delay an acquisition of the company by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise.  Actions taken under such provisions may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our shares, and could, among other things:

provide that the board of directors is authorized, subject to obtaining shareholder approval every two years, at any time during a maximum two-year period, which under our current authorized share capital will expire on May 18, 2020, to issue a specified number of shares, which under our current authorized share capital is approximately four percent of the share capital registered in the commercial register as of February 12, 2020, and to limit or withdraw the preemptive rights of existing shareholders in various circumstances;
provide for a conditional share capital that authorizes the issuance of additional shares up to a maximum amount of approximately 23 percent of the share capital registered in the commercial register as of February 12, 2020, without obtaining additional shareholder approval through: (1) the exercise of conversion, exchange, option, warrant or similar rights for the subscription of shares granted in connection with bonds, options, warrants or other securities newly or already issued in national or international capital markets or new or already existing contractual obligations by or of any of our subsidiaries; or (2) in connection with the issuance of shares, options or other share-based awards;
provide that any shareholder who wishes to propose any business or to nominate a person or persons for election as director at any annual meeting may only do so if we are given advance notice;
provide that directors can be removed from office only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3 percent of the shares entitled to vote;
provide that a merger or demerger transaction requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3 percent of the shares represented at the meeting and provide for the possibility of a so-called cash-out or squeeze-out merger if the acquirer controls 90 percent of the outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting;
provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by the holders of shares must be taken at a duly called annual or extraordinary general meeting of shareholders;
limit the ability of our shareholders to amend or repeal some provisions of our articles of association; and
limit transactions between us and an “interested shareholder,” which is generally defined as a shareholder that, together with its affiliates and associates, beneficially, directly or indirectly, owns 15 percent or more of our shares entitled to vote at a general meeting.

The U.K. withdrawal from the EU may have a negative effect on our business.

On January 31, 2020, the U.K. withdrew from the EU and commenced a transition period that is expected to expire on December 31, 2020 during which the trading relationship between the U.K. and the EU will remain the same while the U.K. and the EU negotiate an agreement regarding their future relationship.  There is currently no agreement in place regarding the relationships between the U.K. and the EU after the transition period, creating significant uncertainties.  These uncertainties, including with respect to the laws and regulations that will apply as the U.K. determines which EU-derived laws to replace or replicate following the withdrawal may affect our U.K. operations, our customers, suppliers and employees and could have adverse effects on the movement of personnel, goods, information and capital.  The withdrawal has also given rise to calls for the governments of other EU member states to consider withdrawal.  These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had and may continue to have an adverse effect on global economic

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conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and may reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets.  Any of these factors could depress economic activity and restrict our access to capital, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  See “—The global nature of our operations involves additional risks.”

Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2.Properties

The description of our property included under “Item 1. Business” is incorporated by reference herein.  We maintain offices, land bases and other facilities worldwide, including principal executive offices in Steinhausen, Switzerland, and corporate offices in Houston, Texas, and the Cayman Islands.  Our remaining offices and bases are located in various countries in North America, South America, Europe, Africa and Asia.  We lease most of these facilities.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings

We have certain actions, claims and other matters pending as discussed and reported in “Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 15—Commitments and Contingencies” and “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Other Matters—Regulatory Matters” in this annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.  We are also involved in various tax matters as described in “Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 12—Income Taxes” and in “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Other Matters—Tax matters” in this annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.  All such actions, claims, tax and other matters are incorporated herein by reference.

As of December 31, 2019, we were also involved in a number of other lawsuits, claims and disputes, which have arisen in the ordinary course of our business and for which we do not expect the liability, if any, to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  We cannot predict with certainty the outcome or effect of any of the matters referred to above or of any such other pending or threatened litigation or legal proceedings.  There can be no assurance that our beliefs or expectations as to the outcome or effect of any lawsuit or claim or dispute will prove correct and the eventual outcome of these matters could materially differ from management’s current estimates.

In addition to the legal proceedings described above, we may from time to time identify other matters that we monitor through our compliance program or in response to events arising generally within our industry and in the markets where we do business.  We evaluate matters on a case by case basis, investigate allegations in accordance with our policies and cooperate with applicable governmental authorities.  Through the process of monitoring and proactive investigation, we strive to ensure no violation of our policies, Code of Integrity or law has, or will, occur; however, there can be no assurance as to the outcome of these matters.

Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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Executive Officers of the Registrant

We have included the following information, presented as of February 12, 2020, on our executive officers for purposes of U.S. securities laws in Part I of this report in reliance on General Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K.  The board of directors elects the officers of the Company, generally on an annual basis.  There is no family relationship between any of our executive officers.

Age as of

Officer

    

Office

    

February 12, 2020

 

Jeremy D. Thigpen (a)

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

 

45

Keelan Adamson (a)

Executive Vice President and Chief Operations Officer

50

Howard E. Davis

Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer

61

Brady K. Long

 

Executive Vice President and General Counsel

 

47

Mark L. Mey (a)

 

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

 

56

David Tonnel

 

Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer

 

50

(a)Member of our executive management team for purposes of Swiss law.

Jeremy D. Thigpen is President and Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Company’s board of directors.  Before joining the Company in this position in April 2015, Mr. Thigpen served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at National Oilwell Varco, Inc. from December 2012 to April 2015.  At National Oilwell Varco, Inc., Mr. Thigpen also served as President, Downhole and Pumping Solutions from August 2007 to December 2012, as President of the Downhole Tools Group from May 2003 to August 2007 and as manager of the Downhole Tools Group from April 2002 to May 2003.  From 2000 to 2002, Mr. Thigpen served as the Director of Business Development and Special Assistant to the Chairman for National Oilwell Varco, Inc.  Mr. Thigpen earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Managerial Studies from Rice University in 1997, and he completed the Program for Management Development at Harvard Business School in 2001.

Keelan Adamson is Executive Vice President and Chief Operations Officer of the Company.  Before being named to his current position in August 2018, Mr. Adamson served as Senior Vice President, Operations from October 2017 to July 2018 and as Senior Vice President, Operations Integrity and HSE, from June 2015 to October 2017.  Since 2010, Mr. Adamson served in multiple executive positions with responsibilities spanning Engineering and Technical Services, Major Capital Projects, Human Resources, and more recently, Operations Integrity and HSE.  Mr. Adamson started his career as a drilling engineer with BP Exploration in 1991 and joined Transocean in July 1995.  In addition to several management assignments in the U.K., Asia, and Africa, he also held leadership roles in Sales and Marketing, Well Construction and Technology, and as Managing Director for operations in North America, Canada and Trinidad.  Mr. Adamson earned a Bachelor's degree in Aeronautical Engineering from The Queens University of Belfast and completed the Advanced Management program at Harvard Business School in 2016.  Mr. Adamson also currently serves on the board of the National Ocean Industries Association.

Howard E. Davis is Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer of the Company.  Before joining the Company in this position in August 2015, Mr. Davis served as Senior Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer of National Oilwell Varco, Inc. from March 2005 to April 2015 and as Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer from August 2002 to March 2005.  Mr. Davis earned a Bachelor’s degree from University of Kentucky in 1980, and he completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School in 2005.

Brady K. Long is Executive Vice President and General Counsel of the Company.  Before being named to his current position in March 2018, Mr. Long served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel from November 2015 to March 2018.  From 2011 to November 2015, when Mr. Long joined the Company, he served as Vice President—General Counsel and Secretary of Ensco plc, which acquired Pride International, Inc. where he had served as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since August 2009.  Mr. Long joined Pride International, Inc. in June 2005 as Assistant General Counsel and served as Chief Compliance Officer from June 2006 to February 2009.  He was director of Transocean Partners LLC from May 2016 until December 2016.  Mr. Long previously practiced corporate and securities law with the law firm of Bracewell LLP.  Mr. Long earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Brigham Young University in 1996, a Juris Doctorate degree from the University of Texas School of Law in 1999 and an Executive LLM in Taxation from New York University in 2019.

Mark L. Mey is Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company.  Before joining the Company in this position in May 2015, Mr. Mey served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Atwood Oceanics, Inc. from January 2015 to May 2015, prior to which he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from August 2010.  Mr. Mey was director of Transocean Partners LLC from June 2015 until December 2016.  He served as Director, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Scorpion Offshore Ltd. from August 2005 to July 2010.  Prior to 2005, Mr. Mey held various senior financial and other roles in the drilling and financial services industries, including 12 years with Noble Corporation.  He earned an Advanced Diploma in Accounting and a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa in 1985, and he is a chartered accountant.  Additionally, Mr. Mey completed the Harvard Business School Executive Advanced Management Program in 1998.

David Tonnel is Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer.  Before being named to his current position in April 2017, he served as Senior Vice President, Supply Chain and Corporate Controller from October 2015 to April 2017, as Senior Vice President, Finance and Controller from March 2012 to October 2015 and as Senior Vice President of the Europe and Africa Unit from June 2009 to March 2012.  Mr. Tonnel served as Vice President of Global Supply Chain from November 2008 to June 2009, as Vice President of Integration and Process Improvement from November 2007 to November 2008, and as Vice President and Controller from February 2005 to November 2007.  Prior to February 2005, he served in various financial roles, including Assistant Controller; Finance Manager, Asia Australia Region; and Controller, Nigeria.  Mr. Tonnel joined the Company in 1996 after working for Ernst & Young in France as Senior Auditor.  Mr. Tonnel earned a Master of Science degree in Management from HEC in Paris, France in 1991.

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PART II

Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market for Shares of Our Common Equity

Our shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “RIG.”  On February 12, 2020, we had 612,573,158 shares outstanding and 5,415 holders of record of our shares.

Shareholder Matters

Swiss tax consequences to our shareholders

Overview—The tax consequences discussed below are not a complete analysis or listing of all the possible tax consequences that may be relevant to our shareholders.  Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors in respect of the tax consequences related to receipt, ownership, purchase or sale or other disposition of our shares and the procedures for claiming a refund of withholding tax.

Swiss income tax on dividends and similar distributions—A non-Swiss holder is not subject to Swiss income taxes on dividend income and similar distributions in respect of our shares, unless the shares are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland by such non-Swiss holder.  However, dividends and similar distributions are subject to Swiss withholding tax, subject to certain exceptions.  See “—Swiss withholding tax on dividends and similar distributions to shareholders.”

Swiss wealth tax—A non-Swiss holder is not subject to Swiss wealth taxes unless the holder’s shares are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland by such non-Swiss holder.

Swiss capital gains tax upon disposal of shares—A non-Swiss holder is not subject to Swiss income taxes for capital gains unless the holder’s shares are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland by such non-Swiss holder.  In such case, the non-Swiss holder is required to recognize capital gains or losses on the sale of such shares, which are subject to cantonal, communal and federal income tax.

Swiss withholding tax on dividends and similar distributions to shareholders—A Swiss withholding tax of 35 percent is due on dividends and similar distributions to our shareholders from us, regardless of the place of residency of the shareholder, subject to the exceptions discussed under “—Exemption” below.  We will be required to withhold at such rate and remit on a net basis any payments made to a holder of our shares and pay such withheld amounts to the Swiss federal tax authorities.

Exemption—Distributions to shareholders in the form of a par value reduction or out of qualifying additional paid-in capital for Swiss statutory purposes are exempt from Swiss withholding tax.  On December 31, 2019, the aggregate amount of par value of our outstanding shares was CHF 61 million, equivalent to approximately $63 million, and the aggregate amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital of our outstanding shares was CHF 13.4 billion, equivalent to approximately $13.7 billion.  Consequently, we expect that a substantial amount of any potential future distributions may be exempt from Swiss withholding tax.

Refund available to Swiss holders—A Swiss tax resident, corporate or individual, can recover the withholding tax in full if such resident is the beneficial owner of our shares at the time the dividend or other distribution becomes due and provided that such resident reports the gross distribution received on such resident’s income tax return, or in the case of an entity, includes the taxable income in such resident’s income statement.

Refund available to non-Swiss holders—If the shareholder that receives a distribution from us is not a Swiss tax resident, does not hold our shares in connection with a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland, and resides in a country that has concluded a treaty for the avoidance of double taxation with Switzerland for which the conditions for the application and protection of and by the treaty are met, then the shareholder may be entitled to a full or partial refund of the withholding tax described above.  Switzerland has entered into bilateral treaties for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to income taxes with numerous countries, including the U.S., whereby under certain circumstances all or part of the withholding tax may be refunded.  The procedures for claiming treaty refunds, and the time frame required for obtaining a refund, may differ from country to country.

Refund available to U.S. residents—The Swiss-U.S. tax treaty provides that U.S. residents eligible for benefits under the treaty can seek a refund of the Swiss withholding tax on dividends for the portion exceeding 15 percent, leading to a refund of 20 percent, or a 100 percent refund in the case of qualified pension funds.  As a general rule, the refund will be granted under the treaty if the U.S. resident can show evidence of the following: (a) beneficial ownership, (b) U.S. residency and (c) meeting the U.S.-Swiss tax treaty’s limitation on benefits requirements.

The claim for refund must be filed with the Swiss federal tax authorities (Eigerstrasse 65, 3003 Bern, Switzerland), not later than December 31 of the third year following the year in which the dividend payments became due.  The relevant Swiss tax form is Form 82C for companies, 82E for other entities and 82I for individuals.  These forms can be obtained from any Swiss Consulate General in the U.S. or from the Swiss federal tax authorities at the above address or can be downloaded from the webpage of the Swiss federal tax administration.  

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Each form must be completed in triplicate, with each copy duly completed and signed before a notary public in the U.S.  Evidence that the withholding tax was withheld at the source must also be included.

Stamp duties in relation to the transfer of shares—The purchase or sale of our shares may be subject to Swiss federal stamp taxes on the transfer of securities irrespective of the place of residency of the purchaser or seller if the transaction takes place through or with a Swiss bank or other Swiss securities dealer, as those terms are defined in the Swiss Federal Stamp Tax Act and no exemption applies in the specific case.  If a purchase or sale is not entered into through or with a Swiss bank or other Swiss securities dealer, then no stamp tax will be due.  The applicable stamp tax rate is 0.075 percent for each of the two parties to a transaction and is calculated based on the purchase price or sale proceeds.  If the transaction does not involve cash consideration, the transfer stamp duty is computed on the basis of the market value of the consideration.

Share repurchases

Repurchases of shares for the purposes of capital reduction are treated as a partial liquidation subject to a 35 percent Swiss withholding tax based on the difference between the repurchase price and the related amount of par value and the related amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital, if any.  We would be required to remit on a net basis the purchase price with the Swiss withholding tax deducted to a holder of our shares and pay the withholding tax to the Swiss federal tax authorities.  However, for such repurchased shares, the portions of the repurchase price that are attributable to the par value and the qualifying additional paid-in capital for Swiss statutory reporting purposes are not subject to the Swiss withholding tax.

If we repurchase shares, we expect to use an alternative procedure pursuant to which we repurchase our shares via a "virtual second trading line" from market players, such as banks and institutional investors, who are generally entitled to receive a full refund of the Swiss withholding tax.  The use of such “virtual second trading line” with respect to share repurchase programs is subject to approval of the competent Swiss tax and other authorities.  We may not be able to repurchase as many shares as we would like to repurchase for purposes of capital reduction on the “virtual second trading line” without subjecting the selling shareholders to Swiss withholding taxes.  The repurchase of shares for purposes other than for cancellation, such as to retain as treasury shares for use in connection with stock incentive plans, convertible debt or other instruments within certain periods, are not generally subject to Swiss withholding tax.

Under Swiss corporate law, the right of a company and its subsidiaries to repurchase and hold its own shares is limited.  A company may repurchase its shares to the extent it has freely distributable reserves as shown on its Swiss statutory balance sheet in the amount of the purchase price and if the aggregate par value of all shares held by the company as treasury shares does not exceed 10 percent of the company’s share capital recorded in the Swiss Commercial Register, whereby for purposes of determining whether the 10 percent threshold has been reached, shares repurchased under a share repurchase program for cancellation purposes authorized by the company’s shareholders are disregarded.  As of February 12, 2020, Transocean Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary, held as treasury shares less than one percent of our issued and outstanding shares as of such date.  Our board of directors could, to the extent freely distributable reserves are available, authorize the repurchase of additional shares for purposes other than cancellation, such as to retain treasury shares for use in satisfying our obligations in connection with incentive plans or other rights to acquire our shares.  Based on the number of shares held as treasury shares as of February 12, 2020, approximately nine percent of our issued and outstanding shares could be repurchased for purposes of retention as additional treasury shares.  Although our board of directors has not approved such a share repurchase program for the purpose of retaining repurchased shares as treasury shares, if it did so, any such shares repurchased would be in addition to any shares repurchased under the currently approved program.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Total number of shares

Approximate dollar value

Total number

Average

purchased as part

of shares that may yet

of shares

price paid

of publicly announced

be purchased under the plans

Period

    

purchased

    

per share

    

plans or programs (a)

    

or programs (in millions) (a)

 

October 2019

$

 

$

3,352

November 2019

3,352

December 2019

3,352

Total

$

 

$

3,352

(a)In May 2009, at our annual general meeting, our shareholders approved and authorized our board of directors, at its discretion, to repurchase for cancellation any amount of our issued and outstanding shares for an aggregate purchase price of up to CHF 3.5 billion.  At December 31, 2019, the authorization remaining under the share repurchase program was for the repurchase of our issued and outstanding shares for an aggregate cost of up to CHF 3.2 billion, equivalent to $3.4 billion.  The share repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued by our board of directors or company management, as applicable, at any time.  See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

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Item 6.Selected Financial Data

The selected financial data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2019 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements included in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”  The selected financial data as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2016 have been derived from our accounting records.  The following data should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

Years ended December 31,

 

2019

2018 (a)

2017

2016 (b)

2015

 

(In millions, except per share data)

 

Statement of operations data

Operating revenues

 

$

3,088

 

$

3,018

 

$

2,973

 

$

4,161

 

$

7,386

Operating income (loss)

(721)

(1,251)

(2,505)

1,106

1,365

Net income (loss)

(1,257)

(2,003)

(3,097)

827

897

Net income (loss) attributable to controlling interest

(1,255)

(1,996)

(3,127)

778

865

Per share earnings (loss)

Basic

 

$

(2.05)

 

$

(4.27)

 

$

(8.00)

 

$

2.08

 

$

2.36

Diluted

 

$

(2.05)

 

$

(4.27)

 

$

(8.00)

 

$

2.08

 

$

2.36

Balance sheet data (at end of period)

Total assets

 

$

24,105

 

$

25,665

 

$

22,410

 

$

26,889

 

$

26,431

Debt due within one year

568

373

250

724

1,093

Long-term debt

8,693

9,605

7,146

7,740

7,397

Finance lease liability (c)

479

Total equity

11,867

13,114

12,711

15,805

15,000

Other financial data

Cash provided by operating activities

 

$

340

 

$

558

 

$

1,170

 

$

1,980